Endpoint Owners – Back to Basics

Remember When…

sqlbasic_sargeBack in late December of 2015, a challenge of sorts was issued by Tim Ford (twitter) to write a blog post each month on a SQL Server Basic. Some have hash-tagged this as #backtobasics. Here is the link to that challenge sent via tweet.

While the challenge may have been for the year 2016 and I haven’t contributed in several months, it is still a worthwhile effort. In that vain, I am adding this article to that series.

With this being another installment in a monthly series, here is a link to review the other posts in the series – back to basics. Reviewing that link, you can probably tell I am a bit behind in the monthly series.

Endpoints

You may have heard the term endpoints thrown around in technical discussion and wondered “what the heck is an endpoint?” Well, that is a good question. An endpoint in the simplest form is a connection or point of entry into SQL server.

Another way of thinking about an endpoint is to look at the ends of a line. Generally speaking, there is a stop point at each end of the line. At this stopping point, the line may connect to something else and therefore be a point of entry into that “something else”.

When we deal with SQL Server there is a handful of default endpoints and then a handful of other types of endpoints. To figure out what the default endpoints are, it is pretty easy. The following query will expose the default endpoints.

Executing that query will produce results similar to the following:

Some of those might look pretty straight forward and then you get to that VIA endpoint. Don’t worry about that endpoint. The VIA endpoint is on the deprecation list. All of these default endpoints will be owned by sa and don’t require you to do anything with them per se other than to understand they exist. You may have noticed that I filtered my results by looking only at endpoints with an id of less than 65536. Any endpoint id lower than this number is a default endpoint. All others are user defined endpoints.

Endpoint Owners

So far so good. This is pretty straight forward to this point. If you have implemented anything like mirroring, Availability Groups, or Service Broker, then you may be interested to know that you have also created additional endpoints in the Instance. When you create an endpoint, did you know that you become the owner of that endpoint by default? It is very similar to when you restore a database or create a database – the default owner of that database will be the person that restored/created it.

Do you know who owns your endpoints? Did you create all of the endpoints? Do you know if you have any additional endpoints beyond the default endpoints? If you cannot answer yes to all of these questions, then you will probably want to figure out what the endpoints are and who owns those endpoints. Let’s try that with a slight modification to the previous query.

This will yield results similar to the following:

I took the script a step further than necessary. I wanted to illustrate potential endpoint types that may not be in use. This script covers both in use endpoint types and those not used. In my results you may note that I have a DATABASE_MIRRORING endpoint. As reality would actually have it, it is an Availability Group endpoint but those are presented as DATABASE_MIRRORING endpoints.

Note that my mirroring endpoint (aka Hadr_endpoint) is owned by “YourDomain\DBAdmin”. What if the owner of that particular endpoint was no longer present in the organization and I wanted to change it to something more sustainable? Well, I could do the following:

In this case, the default endpoints are owned by sa and it does make enough sense to assign the owner to be sa for the mirroring endpoint. Take notice that the name of the endpoint is required in order to reassign the owner. The name of the endpoint follows the :: in the script. So, whatever your endpoint name happens to be, just place “Hadr_endpoint” that follows the :: in my script.

Recap

Endpoints are a fundamental piece of the puzzle with SQL Server.  Getting to know your endpoints and the owners of those endpoints is an essential component of knowing your environment. Who knows, it may come to pass that the owner of an endpoint may no longer exist in your environment or possibly lose permissions along the way. Knowing who owns the endpoint may just save three or four grey hairs when that day comes.

SSRS Subscription Schedules – Enhanced

Reporting Services

 

Over the past couple of articles I have illustrated some of the fun that can be had when dealing with the scheduling capabilities of Reporting Services (SSRS). The first article covered how to create more advanced schedules (from the SSRS point of view). In another I article, I showed how to retrieve scheduling information from the ReportServer database. In that last article, I also promised a follow-up article for more in-depth scheduling details.

SSRS provides the capability to review the scheduled reports (subscriptions) in a far moare detailed fashion than shown in that previous article. That ability is held within the ReportServer database. This article will dive into the source of this scheduling information within the ReportServer database.

This dive will be a bit more detailed than the first time I dove into SSRS scheduling – here. That particular dive was missing an important set of data.

Deeper Dive

My first dive into building a report of the report schedules was pretty comprehensive and I used it quite frequently. Many others also used it regularly for their environments as well. So the first attempt wasn’t bad by any stretch. The main problem (at least for now) is that the script does not account for any of the custom schedules that can be built. I have to be honest in that I hadn’t really considered that feasibility. Times and experience change that perspective. When that perspective changes, it is time to dive back in and add coverage for the shortcoming in the script.

When I dove back in to fetch the custom scheduling information, I realized there was a discrepancy even in the old report in that I was not gathering Job information pertinent to the schedule. Recall that SSRS subscriptions are performed via the SQL Agent. With that in mind, it is reasonable that the Agent job information is pertinent and germane to the report subscription and probably should be included in a report. Couple that with the methods on creating custom schedules for the SSRS reports, and we have a resounding need to ensure that data is trapped properly.

Due to this epiphany, I have now a more complete script to include both the data from SQL Agent as well as the data from the ReportServer database in regards to subscriptions and schedules of reports.

Script

In pulling the data together from the two sources, I opted to return two result sets. Not just two disparate result sets, but rather two result sets that each pertained to both the agent job information as well as the ReportServer scheduling data. For instance, I took all of the subscriptions in the ReportServer and joined that data to the job system to glean information from there into one result set. And I did the reverse as well. You will see when looking at the query and data. One of the reasons for doing it this way was to make this easier to assimilate into an SSRS style report.

As you can see, it is not a short script. By fair measure, it is also considerably more complex than the XML version that was recently posted (and mentioned earlier in this article). That said, it is many times more flexible and complete than the XML version as well. I do continue to use the bit math for figuring the schedules as I did in the first version of the script. When done this way, I can handle the custom schedules as well as get extensive details about the schedule from both the msdb and ReportServer databases.

Recap

SSRS provides built-in mechanisms to help report on the scheduled reports that have been deployed. This version of the report will help you retrieve the data from both a job perspective and from the report scheduler perspective. Through this series of articles, you should be confident in being able to now create custom schedules as well as accurately report on any reports that have specific subscriptions/schedules.

SSRS Subscription Schedules

Reporting Services

Reporting Services (SSRS) is a tool that permits you to create and deliver feature rich reports. The reports can be delivered in various formats and can even be scheduled to be delivered at various times. I even recently wrote about creating more advanced custom schedules.

With the ability to create content delivery schedules, or to subscribe to report content delivery, this imposes a requirement to also know when the various reports are scheduled to be delivered.

SSRS provides the means to be able to review the scheduled reports (subscriptions). That means is held within the ReportServer database. This article will help to uncover one of the sources of this scheduling information within the ReportServer database.

Review Schedules

When looking into the database for SSRS, I can see there are different means to be able to review the report schedules. This article is going to cover just one of those methods. And if I am going to be entirely up front about this method, I don’t like it and I recommend that it not be use.

I can hear the moans now. “If you don’t like it, then why show it to us?” Well, that is a very good question and there is a very good reason for this decision. A lesson I learned a long time ago is sometimes you need to learn the hard way, or less desirable way, to do various things. One of my favorite Calculus teachers from years ago drilled this into my head over and over again. Why? Well, there are three good reasons that come to mind: a) it makes the more desirable method seem much easier, b) it helps you to appreciate the more desirable method all that much more, and c) because if all else fails, you will have another method to fall back to just in case.

Less Disérables

The least desirable method (at least of the methods I will share) is to parse XML from a field stored in the ReportServer database. If I look into the Schedule table within the RepotServer database, I will find this column called MatchData. Up front, this field is not very intuitively named. I would not think this field actually represented the schedule, but it actually does.

Before we start diving into parsing XML, we need an example of what this XML may look like. The following will provide that very example that we need.

Are your gears grinding yet? The XML is not terribly difficult to follow. I am sure you have realized the problem from this format at this point. If I query this to make it human readable in a tabular format (you know DBA format), I will end up with a really wide table that is pretty ugly to look at (unless I get super creative to combine fields etc).

Let’s take a look at the query to parse something like the preceding XML example.

And there we have that ugly query to produce a really wide ugly result set. The query is not difficult to write. It’s just extremely repetitive. In similar fashion, the results are very repetitive. This makes, in my eyes, this particular method less desirable.

I haven’t even gotten to the part about the shortcoming in scheduling reports through SSRS that I wrote about recently – here. In that article I discussed a workaround to overcome the SSRS scheduling options. If you employ methods such as I discussed there, then this query will never fully cover the scheduling related to your reports. Because of that, I will be discussing the better solution in the next article.

Recap

SSRS provides built-in mechanisms to help report on the scheduled reports that have been deployed. While parsing the XML is less desirable than what I will be sharing in the near future, it is better than doing nothing at all. I recommend you start looking into the various report schedules you may already have in your environment. Also, stay tuned for the next article that will better show these schedules.

SSRS Custom Shared Schedule

Reporting Services

 

Reporting Services is a pretty feature rich tool for delivering reports to various consumers. There is plenty of power within Reporting Services (SSRS) giving one the ability to perform visualizations, render reports in various formats and even schedule reports to be delivered in different formats or on different schedules.

Unfortunately, the scheduling capability within SSRS is fairly weak. While it is true that one can accomplish a varied array of different schedules, the scheduling of SSRS is far below the power of SQL Agent (for instance).

I will explore the deficiency of the scheduling tool within SSRS in a very specific case. You may even be familiar with this deficiency already. Many organizations have the need to produce end of month reports that need to run on the last day of the month. If you are familiar with the scheduling tool within SSRS, you already know that this is not possible (at least through SSRS 2014). This article will help step you through how to schedule a report subscription to run on the last day of the month.

Schedule Options

Before diving into the custom schedules, let’s take a closer look at the options available for scheduling through SSRS.

While the tool does provide various options, the granularity certainly is not diverse enough to cover many legitimate scheduling needs – especially the “last day of month” requirement for many month end type of reports.

As you may be aware, SSRS subscriptions are actually run through the SQL Agent despite being set through SSRS. If I take a look at some of the scheduling options in SQL Agent, I can see the following.

Note here that there are various built-in options to schedule on a monthly basis, including the “last” option. If I wanted to look even closer at the available options I would see the following.

As you can see here, I can schedule for multiple different types of “last” options relative to the month. One of these options happens to be the last day. This helps to illustrate just how much more powerful and versatile the scheduling within SQL Agent is than what we get with the SSRS scheduler. All of this despite the fact that SSRS subscriptions are actually executed by the SQL Agent. Doesn’t that seem a bit odd?

Custom Schedule

Now that we better understand the limitations of the SSRS scheduler and given that SSRS subscriptions are executed through the SQL Agent, let’s move on to bigger, better and much more useful means of scheduling the SSRS reports.

The very first thing that you should do is to create a share schedule. This should be a shared schedule that is created as a run-once schedule. Let the schedule run that one time and then proceed on to the following steps. If you need help in creating a shared schedule, here is an msdn article. When you create the shared schedule, I recommend using a descriptive name that you can remember. This name will be useful in the next step. For the purposes of this article, my schedule is named “EndOfMonth”.

Once the schedule is created, the next thing to do is to query the ReportServer database. Make sure you know the name of your database. Some people have changed the ReportServer database name from the default. This is an important piece of information to remember. The query against the ReportServer database will be predominantly just to get the schedule id of the newly created schedule.

When I run that query, I receive the following results.

I now want to take that scheduleid and then use it to determine what SQL Agent job is actually related to that schedule so I can fetch some info from the job. I could skip this entirely and go to the subsequent step but this helps to understand what needs to be done in that subsequent step. So, from here let’s query the msdb database in SQL Server to fetch some info from the job system.

The scheduleid is used within a command within a jobstep. By passing the scheduleid into this query and then comparing against the existing job steps, I am able to retrieve the job that is related to the SSRS shared schedule (subscription). When I run the preceding query, I receive results illustrated in the following image.

Take note of the items I highlighted in red. Within the job name, step name and command text for the step, I can find the scheduleid for that shared schedule that I created. Yes, I could easily have changed the query I used to compare to the job name and that would have worked just fine in this case. By querying the command, I can confirm that the schedule is actually being used. The most important piece of information in this result is the entire command text for the job. I will need to take this command text and use it to populate a brand new SQL Agent job. This is how I will get my custom schedule for the SSRS subscription.

From here, I just need to create a SQL Agent job that uses the options for a monthly schedule indicating last day from the two drop down menus illustrated previously in this article. Then all that is left is a sigh of relief and a boom bada bing.

Recap

SSRS does not have the built-in capability for some of the more complex and often times regularly required report schedules to meet various business requirements. By following the steps outlined in this article, you can circumvent that short-coming and achieve the needed business requirements while looking like a hero to those that need the more advanced report schedules.

T-SQL Tuesday #089: The Cloud and Job Security

Comments: No Comments
Published on: April 11, 2017

The Cloud

Today I am doing a quick entry for my participation points in the monthly blog party called TSQL Tuesday. I have missed the past few opportunities for various reasons. Today when I saw the topic, I wanted to post a few quick thoughts. If you are interested, the host this month is Koen Verbeek (blog | twitter) and the invite can be found here.

Koen invites us to explore the cloud, whether it be a stormy cloud or a silver lined cloud. Either way, explore it and how it relates to you. Here are some of the examples Koen posted:

  • What impact has this had on your job?
  • Do you feel endangered?
  • Do you have more exciting features/toys to work with?
  • Do you embrace the change and learn new skills?
  • Or do you hide in your cubicle and fear the robot uprising?

I guess the answer for me is “it depends” – buahaha. Just kidding.

The Future Is Bright

I think the cloud is a good thing for the data professional, when done right. I do not believe there is anything to fear with it, so I definitely don’t feel endangered. That said, I do proceed cautiously to the silver lined puffs of water in the air. It’s not from fear, but more of a caution to ensure it is the correct move for the business need in question. I don’t believe the cloud is the right answer for all business needs but it is an appropriate solution for many business requirements.

I like to ensure my clients are well informed of what the choices are and the implications may be when deciding to move to the cloud. I like to make sure they understand that a move to the cloud is not a knee jerk decision – it takes planning and considerable effort in many situations. I also like to remind them that the cloud is really just another data center hosting their data. Granted, some offerings from vendors like Amazon and Microsoft do permit considerable flexibility and the opportunity to move quickly to new demands or interests.

Playground

For me, one of the biggest benefits of the cloud is the constantly evolving sandbox that I get to use to learn and grow (obviously that means I get to play a lot). I don’t have the resources at my disposal (and most clients don’t either) to be able to stand up a brand new environment from scratch for a POC quickly and efficiently. If I want to play around with Machine Learning (ML) then I can spin up an environment to help learn and evaluate my options. Should I decided I want to learn how to setup a multi-site multi-node windows cluster, I could spin up that environment very quickly and start learning with minimal hardware requirement on my part.

The cloud offers great learning potential for those interested. That said, it is obviously not free. There is cost for the cloud services and of course one must still invest personal time into the “sandbox” in order to learn the technology properly.

TSQL2sDay150x150The Wrap

Personally, I see no threat from the cloud movement. Some may worry about the cloud automating them out of a job. The truth is, data professionals are always trying to automate things. Automation is not really entirely new and it seems there is always more to be automated.

The cloud offers new avenues to grow ones career. The technology is getting more and more interesting. Is the cloud blowing past you and your career or are you riding the Jet Stream through the clouds and into your future?

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